- AIDS and HIV infection
- AIDS and other human immunodeficiency virus infections (HIV) are now present in most countries of the world. Measures for preventing HIV infection are the same whether the individual is travelling abroad or not. HIV infection is spread by three routes:
- sexual (both homosexual and heterosexual - anal, vaginal, or oral sex),
- blood (especially blood transfusions, or use of needles contaminated with blood), or
- from mother to infant.
To avoid infection with HIV through sexual contact, travellers should avoid sex or limit sexual contact to a faithful, uninfected partner. Otherwise, limiting the number of sexual partners will lower the risk. Sexual contact with prostitutes should be strictly avoided. Use of a condom, from start to finish of sexual activity, will reduce the risk of HIV infection. Spermicides and diaphragms, if used in addition to a condom, may provide additional protection.
To reduce the risk of HIV infection from needles and blood, travellers should avoid intravenous drug use or any type of needle-sharing. Medical injections with un-sterilized equipment are also a possible source of infection. If an injection is essential, the traveller should be certain that the needles and syringes come from a sterile package or have been sterilized properly by steam or boiling water for 20 minutes, or by chemical disinfection for 30 minutes. Patients under medical care who require frequent injections (e.g. diabetics) should carry sufficient sterile needles and syringes for the duration of their trip and a doctor’s authorization for their use. Dental procedures, the needles used in tattooing and acupuncture, ear-piercing devices, and other skin-piercing instruments can also transmit infection if the instruments used are not properly sterilized. If a blood transfusion is absolutely essential, the traveller should request blood that has been screened for HIV infection.
By following these recommendations, HIV infection can be avoided everywhere in the world.
Persons who are infected with HIV should consult their personal physician for a detailed assessment and advice prior to travel. The benefits and risks of recommended immunizations, prophylactic medications, and the travel itself should all be considered.
- Airport tax information
- Information is published only about airport tax to be paid by the passenger, mostly upon departure at the airport, in some cases upon arrival at destination.
Information on the following kind of taxes are not published in the IATA Travel Centre:
- taxes collected from a passenger upon purchase of the ticket
- taxes failed to be collected from a passenger (if applicable) at the time of ticket issue, which as a consequence thereof will be collected at the airport of embarkation (see also appropriate carrier's tariff publications);
- taxes included in the air fare
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