Passport, Visa , Health Glossary

The used terms of this website explained

It is necessary to check carefully the health regulations* of:
  1. country of destination
  2. country of departure (also for returning if applicable)
  3. Transit stations. If only landing will be made en route the certificates of vaccination should be checked as well.
*The health requirements of various countries officially sent to the World Health Organization are published in its “International Travel and Health" booklet. Unfortunately, this official information does not always reflect actual practice at a port of entry. The IATA Travel Centre, on the other hand, tries to show exactly what is happening at the airports.

“Infected area" means:
  • municipal, urban or county district where there is a case of cholera or yellow fever that is neither an imported nor a transferred case
  • district where activity of yellow fever virus is found in vertebrates other than man

Health Authorities Role and Responsibilities
Measures which may be taken by health authorities in accordance with the International Health Regulations of the World Health Organization because of missing/invalid vaccination certificates. Position of states and territories under the International Health Regulations (1969). Unless otherwise indicated, the states listed are bound without reservations:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua & Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia (not bound), Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin (People's Rep.), Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde Is., Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China (People's Rep.), Colombia, Comores, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Kinshasa), Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Rep., Ecuador, Egypt (bound with reservations), El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea Rep., Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India (bound with reservations), Indonesia, Iran (not fully bound), Iraq, Ireland (Rep. of), Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakkstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Korea (Dem. People's Rep.), Korea Rep., Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya (not fully bound), Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar (Dem. Rep.) (not fully bound), Malawi, Moldova (Rep. of), Malysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan (bound withreservations), Panama, Papua New Guinea (not bound), Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russian Fed., Rwanda, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome & Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia & Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovak Rep., Solomon Isl., Somalia, South Africa (not bound), Spain, Sri Lanka, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania (United Republic of), Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vatican City, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen (Rep.), Zambia and Zimbabwe.

This means that in these countries the International Health Regulations of the W.H.W. have the force of law in the sense that such a country has voluntarily and legally agreed that in its relations with all other states and territories, party to these regulations, the provisions of the international health regulations will govern its actions.

In case health authorities in one of the countries mentioned previously as signatories to the International Health Regulations take measures which are in contradiction with the data below, it might be advisable that:

  • the authorities concerned are alerted to the fact that their action contravenes the International Health Regulations .
  • if such matters continue to take place these are reported.
The International Health Regulations provide for the following measures:
  1. Passengers:
    • surveillance passengers may be put under medical surveillance for the period of incubation, reckoned from the day of departure, in the event of missing/invalid certificates of vaccination:
    • quarantine (note for airline station managers: whenever the official health authorities place an arriving passenger in quarantine, a detailed report should be sent in order to enable the carrier's head office to contact, if necessary, the World Health Organization, Geneva.) In case of missing/invalid certificates of vaccination, passengers may be placed in quarantine
  2. Airlines:
    • Detention: aircraft may be detained for a very brief period for the purpose of disinfection if it carried on board a case of cholera or yellow fever among its passengers.
Under the International Health Regulations the following directives have to be taken into account in the event of passengers travelling without vaccination certificates:
  1. Passengers:
    • international travellers other than immigrants, seasonal workers or pilgrims may not be refused entry into a country.
    • passengers may not be fined, prosecuted or compulsorily vaccinated.
  2. Airlines:
    • carriers cannot be forced to remove a person from the country involved at carrier's expense. However, it is actual practice that deportation may take place
    • carriers cannot be forced to pay a fine.
Additional information
  1. If a vaccinator is of the opinion that vaccination is contraindicated on medical grounds he should, in writing, provide the person involved with reasons underlying that opinion, which health authorities may take into account.
  2. Although vaccination cannot be enforced, persons refusing vaccination (e.g. on religious or medical grounds) can under certain conditions be submitted to surveillance or to isolation.
Missing/invalid certificates.
Some airlines will accept passengers not holding valid certificates of vaccination on the condition that the passengers sign a "form of indemnity". This applies also to passengers holding a medical attestation stating that a vaccination is undesirable on medical grounds.

Validity of vaccination.
If the period of validity for a certain country differs from the periods mentioned in the cholera or yellow fever paragraph, the deviating period is mentioned on the page of the country concerned. The day of vaccination is not counted when defining at which date the validity of a vaccination begins. Example: a primary cholera injection has taken place on April 4. The sixth day thereafter, the certificate will be valid, so April 10.


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