Passport, Visa , Health Glossary

The used terms of this website explained

Passport types
Besides normal passports, there are also:
  1. Alien passports: issued to alien residents of the issuing country.
  2. Children's identity cards: issued to minors instead of a passport (e.g. German "Kinderausweis").
  3. Diplomatic or consular passports; issued to diplomatic, consular and other government officials on missions entitling the bearer to diplomatic or consular status under international law and custom.
  4. Official, special or service passports: issued to government officials or other persons on government missions. Type of passport has to be inserted by issuing authorities.
  5. International Red Cross passport, Laissez-Passer issued by the United Nations etc.
  6. Joint passports (family passports). Persons travelling together may hold joint passports which may be used to cover either:
    • husband and wife with/without children; or
    • holder of the passport and child/children under a certain age (not necessarily related); or
    • two or more children
    For travel alone such passports may only be used by the person named first in the passport. Examples: a wife may not use the passport for travel without her husband, or a child without its parents, or a younger child without the elder. Note that some countries deviate from the above regulations.
  7. Temporary/emergency passports issued in emergency cases by a country's government to its own nationals. These passports have the same legal effect as normal passports, unless otherwise stated in the relevant country pages.

Passport validity
If there is no specific mention of validity, passports are simply required to be valid on entry. However, most countries do have a specific requirement and where this is published, is the actual practice of the immigration officials at airports. Please note that when consulting embassies on passport validity, more often than not the advice given will usually be validity of 6 months. This is quoted, as this is the minimum requirement for a visa issuing authority when issuing a visa in a passport.

Expired passports are accepted by some countries for certain nationals. If so, this information will also be published.

A passport is an official document issued by a competent public authority to nationals or to alien residents (mostly stateless persons) of the issuing country.
Passengers must hold a passport valid for all the countries to or via which they travel, unless:
  1. an exemption to that effect is stated in the passport section of the country(ies) concerned;
  2. they pass through a country without leaving the airport. A few countries do not allow this, in which case it is stated under the passport section of the country(ies) concerned.

For the purpose of this service, Pets are considered to be either cats, dogs or pet birds.

The regulations published in this service (always under the customs section) only apply to pets if they are:
  • accompanied by a passenger as personal baggage either in the cabin (if allowed) or in the hold of the aircraft
  • not destined for commercial purposes.
Pets arriving as freight on an air waybill may have to comply with other conditions. In such cases refer to the competent cargo office.

Dogs and cats in transit and not leaving the airport are not subject to governmental restrictions unless this has been specifically indicated in the information in the country concerned.

Regulation (EC) No. 998/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council General guidelines for pets travelling between the European Union member states and from third countries (see the respective country pages for any other additional information):

Dogs and cats arriving from E.U. countries, Andorra, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Norway, San Marino, Switzerland and Vatican City must:
  • bear a clearly readable tattoo or microchip, which complies with ISO Standard 11784 or Annex A to ISO Standard 11785. If the microchip does not meet these standards, the owner should provide a microchip reader able to detect the microchip; and
  • be accompanied by a pet passport, issued by a veterinarian authorised by the competent authority, which clearly identifies the pet and certifies valid anti-rabies vaccination, or revaccination if applicable, with an inactivated vaccine of at least one antigenic unit per dose (WHO standard) as well as an echinococcus and ticks treatment.
Import of unvaccinated pets under 3 months old may be allowed if holding passport and having stayed in the place of birth without contact with wild animals or be accompanied by their mothers on whom they are still dependent.

Dogs and cats imported from other countries have to comply with above requirements. In lieu of the passport, the animal must be accompanied by a certificate issued by official veterinarian or other veterinary surgeon, authorised by competent authority of country of dispatch (third country) carrying the information on the animal's identification and
  • anti-rabies vaccination; and
  • anti-body test showing a result of antibodies of at least 0.5 IU/ml carried out in an approved laboratory and taken at least 30 days after vaccination and 3 months before being moved; and
  • echinococcus and ticks treatment.
If a pet animal originally comes from an E.U. country and is accompanied by a pet passport carrying the information required for import, the pet passport replaces the veterinary certificate.

Import of unvaccinated pets under 3 months old may be allowed if the rabies situation in the country concerned so warrants.

The complete text of this resolution is available at the E.U. website:

Further specific information regarding importation and/or quarantine of cats, dogs or birds or large quantities of merchandise should be obtained from carrier's cargo offices or the nearest consulate of the country concerned.

Prophylactic Health Measures
  1. General: Travellers should always realize that when they are abroad they may come in contact with diseases which are more common than in the country in which they reside. The risk varies greatly from country to country, according to the manner in which the traveller lives and the duration of stay. Generally speaking many forms of illness may be prevented by:
    • avoiding infection e.g. by ensuring that food and drink are as safe as possible or by using a mosquito net
    • immunization and drug prophylaxis. Travellers should consult their physicians or local health service on the advisability of vaccination or other preventive measures to be taken for the individual for a particular plan of travel
  2. Yellow fever is the only vaccination specifically required in normal travel and is only necessary for certain countries
  3. Plague: vaccination is not required by any country and is only recommended for travellers under exceptional circumstances e.g. people who will have frequent and regular contact with wild rodents in areas where the disease is known to exist.
  4. Hepatitis: viral Hepatitis A is common in most warm countries and may be spread by food or drink. This is therefore another good reason for exercising great care in ensuring that food and drink are as safe as possible. Visitors to tropical areas and developing countries, especially if going beyond normal tourist routes, should consider having a safe and highly effective inactivated (killed) vaccine. Two doses of vaccine should be given. The first one 4 weeks before departure, if possible. The second dose 6-12 months later. Such a schedule is expected to provide at least 10 years' protection. Hepatitis B is highly endemic in all of Africa, a larger part of South America, eastern Europe, the eastern Mediterranean area, Southeast Asia, China and the Pacific islands except Australia, New Zealand and Japan. Hepatitis B may be transmitted in a number of ways such as blood transfusion, needle sharing, and sexual transmission. Hepatitis B vaccines produced from plasma or by recombinant DNA technology are available, safe and effective. The first two doses are usually given one month apart, with the third dose 1-12 months later. Immunization will provide protection for at least 10 years.
  5. Other diseases: there are other diseases such as rabies, diphtheria, tetanus, schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, typhoid and typhus fever etc. which constitute a risk only in certain areas or under unusual conditions e.g. outbreaks of typhoid fever following natural disasters. Travellers should discuss with their physician local preventive measures against such diseases.
Sanitary charges
Vaccinations performed and certificates issued at an airport of arrival may not be subject to a charge. Under the provisions of the International Health Regulations other certificates issued on departure may be subject to a charge.

Transit passengers
If a country requires that passengers coming via a certain area or country be vaccinated, this means that also those passengers who do not leave the airport and/or continue their journey by same aircraft in that area or country must be vaccinated. However, many exceptions are listed on the country sections.


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