Passport, Visa , Health Glossary

The used terms of this website explained

Schengen Agreement
The Schengen states are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.

The Schengen Agreement came into force on 26th March 1995. It is an agreement between several member states of the European Union (EU) concerning the removal of immigration control for travel within their collective territories. This creates a "borderless" region known as the "Schengen area" and consequently changes the procedures for entering or connecting in all of the Schengen states, as well as for travelling between them.

Because entry into one Schengen state gives free access to all the others, the immigration procedures have been standardised.

On 21st December nine new countries will join the Schengen area. These countries are: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovak Republic, Slovenia. From that time border control by land and sea between these new and existing countries within the Schengen area will cease to exist. However, immigration control will remain in place for intra-Schengen flights operating to and from the new member states until 29th March 2008.

TWOV (Transit without Visa):
The usual TWOV regulations apply for a direct transit at a Schengen airport when arriving and departing from/to non-Schengen countries. However, TWOV is not possible if one of the next destinations or transit points is a Schengen country for which the passenger needs a visa. This is because the passenger is entering Schengen territory (borderless). This means those nationals of states who require a visa for all Schengen states and nationals of states who require a visa for one or more Schengen states, need a transit visa at all times.

Checking travel documents:
In principle, carriers are only responsible for ensuring that passengers have the necessary documents (including a visa where necessary) for the country to which they are destined on the flight which they are boarding. However, with respect to those passengers who need a visa for one or more of the Schengen states, but not for all, if they are ticketed to another Schengen state for which they do need a visa, there is a risk that they may be declared inadmissible at the point of entry, even if they do not need a visa for that particular state.

Issue of Schengen visas:
Because one Schengen state can now issue visas on behalf of the others, the procedure for issuance has become more complicated. For example, visas can no longer be issued by Honorary Consuls . Consequently questions of how to obtain a visa should be addressed to the competent authorities in each country.

Types of visa:
There are 4 types of Schengen visas:
  • Type A: airport transit visa; required for those nationals who cannot use the TWOV-facility at all, being in direct transit in a Schengen country when arriving and departing from/to NON-Schengen countries. In general, leaving the airport is not allowed.
  • Type B: transit visa; required for passengers making a transit in the Schengen territory which is exceeding the allowed transit-time and for passengers who are transiting in more than 1 Schengen country.
  • Type C: short period visa (max. 3 months); the common "SCHENGEN VISA" which is issued by any one of the 15 States and is valid for all the others.
  • Type D: long period national visa; a visa for a longer period or for other special cases which may be issued by an individual Schengen State on a national basis (these are indicated as only valid for the country of issue).
When applying for either a Type B or Type C visa with the intension of visiting/transiting:
  • only one Schengen state: applications should be made at the Consulate or Embassy of that particular country;
  • several Schengen states: applications should be made at the Consulate or Embassy of the country which is the main destination;
  • several Schengen states but do not have a main destination: applications should be made at the Consulate or Embassy of the country which is the first point of entry into the Schengen area.
Failure to comply with these may result in an investigation by immigration officers and possible refusal of entry.


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