Passport, Visa , Health Glossary

The used terms of this website explained

Airport tax information

Information is published only about airport tax to be paid by the passenger, mostly upon departure at the airport, in some cases upon arrival at destination.

Information on the following kind of taxes are not published in the IATA Travel Centre:

  • taxes collected from a passenger upon purchase of the ticket
  • taxes failed to be collected from a passenger (if applicable) at the time of ticket issue, which as a consequence thereof will be collected at the airport of embarkation (see also appropriate carrier's tariff publications);
  • taxes included in the air fare

Baggage Clearance:

The procedure for baggage clearance are not internationally standardized. Customs authorities of each country follow independently-drafted regulations. Often these regulations differ for one or more of the airports a country may have.

Under "Baggage Clearance" information is published about the place of clearance. Baggage is cleared at the first airport of entry or at the airport of final destination within one country (under certain circumstances not at all). Usually the travel circumstances of a passenger determine the place of clearance, e.g. baggage of an arriving passenger can be cleared, while baggage of a passenger in transit is not. The regulations as published are applicable to all passengers, including seamen. Specific regulations for each country can be found under Customs, subsection Baggage Clearance.

Note: December 19, 1991 a Council Regulation of the European Union (at that time: European Economic Community ) was agreed on, concerning the elimination of controls and formalities applicable to both cabin and hold baggage of persons travelling on an intra-community flight or intra-community sea crossing. Although this council regulation resulted in a more or less standard procedure for all E.U. Member States, significant differences have since been implemented by several of these states. Therefore the regulations for each E.U. country given under section 5. Customs - Baggage Clearance can have both national as well as community aspects, or only one of these.

British Passports and endorsements regarding national status

British passports will have one of the following endorsements as regards national status. Note: this list is an explanation of the various types of British passports issued and in the event of a visa exemption being granted to holders of British Citizen passports, it does not necessarily mean that holders of the other passports are visa exempt.

  1. British Citizen - for those closely connected with the United Kingdom (incl. the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man)
  2. British Overseas Territories Citizen (previously referred to as British Dependent Territories Citizen) - For those with connections with one or more of the overseas territories (see description of The Commonwealth of Nations) which remains as a British dependency. With the introduction of the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, British Dependent Territories citizenship (BDTC) has been re-named as British Overseas Territories citizenship. From May 1, 2002, most people who held a BDTC passport automatically became British citizens, which is additional to, not a replacement of, their British Overseas Territories citizenship. (This does not apply to those who derive their connection from the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia). British Overseas Territories citizens now have the option of renewing their British Dependent Territories citizen passport with a British Overseas Territories Citizen passport or British Citizen passport.
  3. British National (Overseas) - Replaces British Dependent Territories Citizen passports issued in Hong Kong, which ceased to be valid after June 30, 1997. Holders of British National passports have the right of abode in Hong Kong (SAR China) and the passport will bear an endorsement with reference to the holder's Hong Kong Permanent identity card stating his right of abode in Hong Kong. Moreover, they do not need a visa to visit the United Kingdom and passport will bear the special endorsement: "In accordance with the United Kingdom Immigration Rules the holder of this passport does not require an entry certificate or visa to visit the United Kingdom";
  4. British Overseas Citizen - for those present citizens of the U.K. and colonies who do not acquire either of the above types of citizenship (they are likely to be people who acquired their citizenship through an association with a former dependent territory).
  5. British Protected Person - for those who had a connection with territories that were previously British Protectorates, Protected States or mandated of Trust Territories;
  6. British Subjects - generally applies to those were born prior to January 1, 1949 and who had a connection with either British India or Ireland (Rep. of).

Only holders of British passports endorsed British Citizens have the automatic right to live permanently in the United Kingdom ("the right of abode") and are free to leave and re-enter at any time. Passports of British Citizens do not contain a reference to this Automatic right. The other categories will not have automatic right of abode in the United Kingdom and their passports will bear one of the following endorsements:

  • "Holder is subject to control under the Immigration Act 1971”
  • ”Holder is entitled to re-admission to the United Kingdom"

Holders of British Overseas Territories Citizen (previously referred to as British Dependent Territories Citizen), British National Overseas, British Overseas Citizen, British Subject, or British Protected Person passports may be required to hold a visa even though the country being visited does not require a visa for holders of British Citizen Passports.

China (People's Rep.) travel documents

Nationals of China (People’s Rep.) from mainland China, Hong Kong (SAR China) and Macao (SAR China) are issued with different types of passports or travel documents. Entry requirements for some countries might be different for: 

Mainland China passengers: nationals of China (People’s Rep.) from mainland China. Some of the documents they can travel with are:
- China (People’s Rep.) passport;
- China (People's Rep.) Travel Permit to and from Taiwan (Lu Bao Zheng).

Hong Kong (SAR China) passengers: nationals of China (People’s Rep.) from Hong Kong (SAR China). Some of the documents they can travel with are:
- Hong Kong (SAR China) passport;
- Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents (Hui Xiang Zheng).

Macao (SAR China) passengers: nationals of China (People’s Rep.) from Macao (SAR China). Some of the documents they can travel with are:
- Macao (SAR China) passport;
- Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents (Hui Xiang Zheng).

Chinese Taipei passengers: passengers from Chinese Taipei (TW). Some of the documents they can travel with are: 
- Chinese Taipei (on the cover: Republic of China Taiwan) passport;
- National ID card issued by Chinese Taipei (Taiwan Identity Card);
- Mainland Travel Permit for Taiwan Residents (Tai Bao Zheng).


International Certificate of Vaccination or revaccination:
In the most recently issued International Certificate of Vaccination , the World Health Organization did not include a separate vaccination certificate against cholera. If vaccination against cholera is performed it can be entered in the space for other vaccinations . However, the booklets containing the separate vaccination certificate against cholera can still be used.

Measures by health authorities in case of non-compliance with the health regulations:

  • Surveillance 5 days if not arriving from an infected area.
  • Quarantine (periods reckoned from day of departure) 5 days (or: until certificate becomes valid whichever occurs first) if arriving from an infected area.

Period of validity:
In case of primary vaccination: 6 months, beginning 6 days after first injection. In case of revaccination within the 6 month period: 6 months, beginning on date of revaccination. The old certificate has to be shown during the first 6 days after revaccination.


  • Some countries still require vaccination even though such a requirement cannot be justified as a means of preventing spread of the disease.
  • Cholera vaccination is not routinely recommended by the world health organization. It does not give personal protection and travellers should always pay careful attention to food and water in endemic countries. They should drink only treated or bottled water, avoid uncooked vegetables and fruit, and pay attention to personal hygiene.
  • However, for some countries, vaccination cholera could be considered as a justified additional personal measure.
  • If a traveller should become ill with diarrhoea after returning home the physician should be informed that the traveller has visited a cholera-infected country so that a rapid diagnosis may be made and treatment started.

Cholera Infected Areas

Cholera Infected Areas exist in:

  • CHAD (TD)
  • GHANA (GH)
  • INDIA (IN)
  • IRAQ (IQ)
  • KENYA (KE)
  • LAOS (LA)
  • MALI (ML)
  • NEPAL (NP)
  • NIGER (NE)
  • PERU (PE)
  • TOGO (TG)

An infected area for cholera is no longer considered infected if at least twice the incubation period of five days has elapsed since the last case of the disease has died, recovered, or been isolated.

Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations includes: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana,Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Is., South Africa, Sri Lanka, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, the United Kingdom of Great Britain & N. Ireland, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe (temporarily suspended). The following territories dependent on the United Kingdom: Anguilla; Bermuda; British Antarctic Territory; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cayman Islands; Falkland Islands and dependencies; Gibraltar; Montserrat; Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands; St. Helena and dependencies; the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia (i.e. areas mentioned in section 2(1) of the Cyprus Act 1960); Turks and Caicos Islands; Virgin Islands. The following territories dependent on Australia: Australian Antarctic Territory, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island and Norfolk Island. The following territories overseas dependent on New Zealand: Tokelau Islands and Ross Dependency. The following islands which are self-governing in free association with New Zealand: Cook Islands, Niue.
Procedure for ascertaining nationality/citizenship: in case a passport issued by a commonwealth country other than the U.K. bears, in addition to the annotation British Subject, the annotation Citizen of ... (one of the commonwealth countries other than "United Kingdom and colonies), the last mentioned citizenship/nationality prevails. Consequently for entry regulations (visa exemptions) of the various countries, the holder of such a passport must not be considered a British Subject, but a national of ...(one of the commonwealth countries other than the United Kingdom and colonies).

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES)

Many species of wild fauna and flora are protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES). International trade in such species is also regulated by CITES through a system of export and, for the most endangered species, import permits. This directly influences the import and export of related personal effects or tourist souvenirs. Because CITES governs not only live animals and plants but also their parts and derivatives, travellers are recommended to check if any such item they would like to purchase falls under those regulations before attempting to export it.

Pets, which are listed in TIM under 5. Customs, may also be subject to CITES if they are not domestic animals. Their transport, therefore, from one country to another might be subject to CITES regulations.

The following countries have CITES membership:
Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Rep., Chad, Chile, China (People's Rep.), Colombia, Comores Isl., Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Kinshasa), Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Rep., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Rep., Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Korea Rep., Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar (Dem. Rep.), Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Fed., Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovak Rep., Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, U.S.A., Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

The list of species regulated under the convention is too extensive to show in this service. Therefore you will find below some items which may serve as examples:

  • live animals and plants, e.g. monkeys, wild cats, parrots, lizards, snakes, chameleons, orchids, cacti, etc;
  • products such as furs (tiger, leopard, jaguar, cheetah, lion etc.), handbags, belts, purses, crocodile, cobra, python, lizard, etc.), turtle shell and skin items
  • ivory carvings, stuffed specimens etc.

The complete list of protected species is published in the IATA live animals regulations. In each CITES member state, one or more management authorities are designated for CITES purposes (including information and permit issuance). The list of these management authorities is also provided in the IATA live animals regulations. Further information may be obtained from the:
CITES secretariat:
15 Chemin des Anemones
Case Postal 456
CH-1219 Chatelaine-Geneva

Warning: customs can confiscate protected species.


Depending on individual country requirements, in addition to their national passports where applicable, crew members may be required to show:

  • General Declaration Form containing information on crew members based on flight details; and
  • Crew Member Certificate or Crew Member Licence issued by the National Aviation Authority of a country, under the agreement of the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization).

These documents show a photograph of the bearer as well as personal details, such as full name, sex, nationality, date of birth, occupation, place of issue and signature on behalf of the issuing authority.


Currency regulations are given for import and export of currency based on normal travelling and hotel expenses. For regulations concerning current payments and capital payments consult the national bank of the country concerned.

Dual nationality

A person may be a national or citizen of two (or more) countries and may therefore hold more than one passport or any other travel document. Such passenger is entitled to travel on any of these documents, provided these will be accepted by the country of destination. The visa requirements will depend on the passport (or passport replacing document) used in each case.

European Economic Area (EEA)

Members: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland (Rep.), Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Firearms and Ammunition

Passengers should consult an airline in case of doubt.

  1. Airlines shall not knowingly permit passengers to retain custody of ammunition, firearms and other weapons in the passenger cabin
  2. Ammunition, firearms and other weapons shall only be accepted for carriage as checked baggage. Such firearms shall be unloaded, i.e. free of ammunition, and suitably packed for such carriage.
  3. All ammunition shall be carried in the aircraft hold as checked baggage only and with approval of the carrier(s) participating in the transportation as follows: small arms ammunition for sporting purposes (in division 1.4 s) in quantities not exceeding 5 kgs (11 lbs) gross mass per passenger, securely boxed for personal use, excluding those with explosive or incendiary projectiles, both of which are totally prohibited for carriage by air
  4. 1.
  5. (Except U.K. or British Territories Overseas) Notwithstanding paragraphs 1, 2 and 3, an authorised person performing a duty on board an aircraft such as a law enforcement officer or diplomatic courier, may be permitted to retain custody of his firearm and ammunition upon duly identifying himself to airlines' personnel at time of check-in
  6. The above is subject to any further restrictive conditions applicable in countries of departure, transit or destination.

French Monetary Area

The French monetary area comprises: Benin*, Burkina Faso*, Cameroon*, Central African, Republic*, Chad*, Comores (Islands)*, Congo (Brazzaville)* Cote d'Ivoire*, Equatorial Guinea*, France, French West Indies, French Austral & Antarctic Territories, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon*, Mali*, Mayotte, Monaco, New Caledonia (incl. Futuna and Wallis), Niger*, Reunion Isl., Senegal*, St.Pierre and Miquelon (Is.), Togo*.

* The local currency of these countries is CFA Franc (CFA = Communaute Financiere Africaine).


It is necessary to check carefully the health regulations* of:

  1. country of destination
  2. country of departure (also for returning if applicable)
  3. Transit stations. If only landing will be made en route the certificates of vaccination should be checked as well.

*The health requirements of various countries officially sent to the World Health Organization are published in its “International Travel and Health" booklet. Unfortunately, this official information does not always reflect actual practice at a port of entry. The IATA Travel Centre, on the other hand, tries to show exactly what is happening at the airports.

“Infected area" means:

  • municipal, urban or county district where there is a case of cholera or yellow fever that is neither an imported nor a transferred case
  • district where activity of yellow fever virus is found in vertebrates other than man

Health Authorities Role and Responsibilities

Measures which may be taken by health authorities in accordance with the International Health Regulations of the World Health Organization because of missing/invalid vaccination certificates. Position of states and territories under the International Health Regulations (1969). Unless otherwise indicated, the states listed are bound without reservations:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua & Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia (not bound), Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin (People's Rep.), Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde Is., Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China (People's Rep.), Colombia, Comores, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Kinshasa), Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Rep., Ecuador, Egypt (bound with reservations), El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea Rep., Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India (bound with reservations), Indonesia, Iran (not fully bound), Iraq, Ireland (Rep. of), Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakkstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Korea (Dem. People's Rep.), Korea Rep., Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya (not fully bound), Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar (Dem. Rep.) (not fully bound), Malawi, Moldova (Rep. of), Malysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan (bound withreservations), Panama, Papua New Guinea (not bound), Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russian Fed., Rwanda, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome & Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia & Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovak Rep., Solomon Isl., Somalia, South Africa (not bound), Spain, Sri Lanka, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania (United Republic of), Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vatican City, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen (Rep.), Zambia and Zimbabwe.

This means that in these countries the International Health Regulations of the W.H.W. have the force of law in the sense that such a country has voluntarily and legally agreed that in its relations with all other states and territories, party to these regulations, the provisions of the international health regulations will govern its actions.

In case health authorities in one of the countries mentioned previously as signatories to the International Health Regulations take measures which are in contradiction with the data below, it might be advisable that:

  • the authorities concerned are alerted to the fact that their action contravenes the International Health Regulations .
  • if such matters continue to take place these are reported.

The International Health Regulations provide for the following measures:

  1. Passengers:
    • surveillance passengers may be put under medical surveillance for the period of incubation, reckoned from the day of departure, in the event of missing/invalid certificates of vaccination:
    • quarantine (note for airline station managers: whenever the official health authorities place an arriving passenger in quarantine, a detailed report should be sent in order to enable the carrier's head office to contact, if necessary, the World Health Organization, Geneva.) In case of missing/invalid certificates of vaccination, passengers may be placed in quarantine
  2. Airlines:
    • Detention: aircraft may be detained for a very brief period for the purpose of disinfection if it carried on board a case of cholera or yellow fever among its passengers.

Under the International Health Regulations the following directives have to be taken into account in the event of passengers travelling without vaccination certificates:

  1. Passengers:
    • international travellers other than immigrants, seasonal workers or pilgrims may not be refused entry into a country.
    • passengers may not be fined, prosecuted or compulsorily vaccinated.
  2. Airlines:
    • carriers cannot be forced to remove a person from the country involved at carrier's expense. However, it is actual practice that deportation may take place
    • carriers cannot be forced to pay a fine.

Additional information

  1. If a vaccinator is of the opinion that vaccination is contraindicated on medical grounds he should, in writing, provide the person involved with reasons underlying that opinion, which health authorities may take into account.
  2. Although vaccination cannot be enforced, persons refusing vaccination (e.g. on religious or medical grounds) can under certain conditions be submitted to surveillance or to isolation.

Missing/invalid certificates.
Some airlines will accept passengers not holding valid certificates of vaccination on the condition that the passengers sign a "form of indemnity". This applies also to passengers holding a medical attestation stating that a vaccination is undesirable on medical grounds.

Validity of vaccination.
If the period of validity for a certain country differs from the periods mentioned in the cholera or yellow fever paragraph, the deviating period is mentioned on the page of the country concerned. The day of vaccination is not counted when defining at which date the validity of a vaccination begins. Example: a primary cholera injection has taken place on April 4. The sixth day thereafter, the certificate will be valid, so April 10.

International Certificates of Vaccinations

Method of recording the date. The date on International Certificates of Vaccination should be recorded in the following sequence: month, day, year - the month to be written in letters and not in figures. Example: January 5, 1999. The booklet International Certificates of Vaccination contains pages with certificates of vaccination:

  • against yellow fever
  • against other diseases
  1. If vaccinations are required, the passenger has to contact his family doctor or the proper authorities according to the regulations which are in force in the country of departure.
  2. Common order of vaccinations:
    • yellow fever
    • cholera
    Having the two vaccinations performed will take about 20 days. However the actual order of vaccination is very much a personal decision of the physician concerned.
  3. The International Certificates of Vaccination booklet, which can be ordered from an air carrier, must be duly filled in, signed by the vaccinator and stamped by the proper authority.
  4. The International Certificates of Vaccination in addition to being issued by country health administrations, are also valid when originating from the health services of specialized agencies of the United Nations, for example FAO, UNESCO, WHO, etc. These certificates should, of course, be signed by the vaccinator and carry the official stamp of the agency concerned.
  5. To be valid in international traffic, vaccination certificates must be printed in English and French; a third language may be added. The certificate must be fully and correctly completed in English or French; completion in another language in addition is not excluded. Only accept loose vaccination certificates if they are in conformity with those in the booklet.

The International Certificate of Vaccination is an individual certificate and should not be used collectively. Separate certificates should be issued for minors.

International Labour Organization (ILO)

ILO stands for International Labour Organization (a specialized agency associated with the United Nations). The member states who ratify the ILO Conventions no. 22 and 108, have agreed upon the adoption of a Seafarer's National Identity Document/Seaman's Book and further proposals with regard to the reciprocal or international recognition thereof. ILO Convention 108 applies not only to nationals of these countries, but also to stateless seafarers resident in these countries who hold identity documents issued under and in accordance with the Convention.

The following countries have ratified ILO Convention no. 22: Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China (People's Rep.), Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, India, Iraq, Ireland (Rep. of), Italy, Japan, Liberia, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Serbia & Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Tunisia, United Kingdom, Uruguay and Venezuela.

The following countries have ratified ILO Convention no.108: Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Cuba, Czech Rep., Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland (Rep. of), Italy, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova (Rep. of), Morocco, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Fed., Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Slovenia, Spain, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Sweden, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom and Uruguay.


A number of international travellers die from malaria every year because:

  • they were not aware of, or underestimated, the danger of contracting malaria abroad
  • the disease, especially malignant tertian (falciparum) malaria, can simulate various diseases, and diagnosis and adequate treatment are delayed;
  • they did not tell their doctor that they had recently been to a tropical country.

Travellers are required to take more responsibility for their own protection and therefore to seek advice and to comply rigorously with the recommended measures.

In many malarias countries the main towns are often free of the disease, although this is not necessarily true of their outskirts. There is usually much less risk of malaria at altitudes greater than 1500m, but the disease can occur in certain climatic conditions as high as 3000m or above. The degree of risk of infection also may vary with the season of the year.

If there is any doubt about the need to take preventive measures against malaria, a precautionary attitude should be adopted and the traveller should be advised to comply with the recommendations.

There are three things travellers should always do:

  • inquire beforehand about malaria risk and prophylactic measures appropriate for the specific area they wish to visit (physician health authorities, specialized institutions, travel agents, airline offices etc.);
  • protect themselves against mosquito bites (as described below);
  • be aware that in spite of all their precautions they may still contract malaria.

No anti-malarial prophylactic regimen gives complete protection.


  • Mosquito bites. This should constitute the traveller's first line of defence against malaria. Travellers can protect themselves quite effectively against insect bites and in this way prevent infection; sufficiently thick long-sleeved clothing when outdoors after sunset avoiding dark colours; insect repellent on the parts of skin remaining exposed (repellent should include either N, N-diethyl-M-toluamide (deet) or dimethyl phthalate; properly screened rooms (air-conditioned); anti-mosquito spray; sleeping under mosquito net (increased protection by impregnating with permethrin or deltamethrin); plug-in insecticide dispensers; burning mosquito coils
  • Although chemoprophylaxis National advisory bodies differ in their specific recommendations. The advice given here reflects the current opinion of the WHO malaria action programme with due consideration given to varying experts views; it is not intended to supplant the advice of national authorities. The traveller should consult his or her physician, who will advise on the appropriate prophylactic drug and its dosage. In Timatic, the recommended type of prevention is referred to as :
    • Type I (very limited risk of malaria transmission) - Mosquito bite prevention only.
    • Type II (risk of P. vivax malaria or fully chloroquine-sensitive P. Falciparum only) Mosquito bite prevention plus chloroquine chemoprophylaxis.
    • Type III (risk of malaria transmission and memerging chloroquine resistance) Mosquito bite prevention plus chloroquine+proguanil chemoprophylaxis.
    • Type IV (high risk of falciparum malaria plus drug resistance, or moderate/low risk falciparum malaria but high drug resistance) Mosquito bite prevention plus either mefloquine, doxycycline or atovaquone/proguanil (take one that no resistance is reported for in the specific areas to be visited).

Chemoprophylaxis should be started preferably one week before departure and no later than the first day of exposure; it must be taken with unfailing regularity and continued for 4 weeks after the last exposure.

No prophylactic regimen is 100% protective against infection, but even if it fails to prevent the disease it may, nevertheless, render the infection milder and less life threatening.

A disease starting less than seven days after the first exposure is most probably not malaria. As the most important survival factor in persons with malignant malaria is early diagnosis and treatment, a traveller who develops fever seven days or more after the first possible exposure to malaria should seek prompt medical attention. Malaria should be considered in all unexplained fevers in travellers who have been exposed. There are situations in which no safe and effective phophylactic drug regimen is available, and the traveller will have to rely on protection against mosquito bites, prompt medical attention, and perhaps self-treatment.

Areas with malaria risk
The presence of malaria risk in a tropical or subtropical country is indicated on the country sections under Health. The existing malaria form: malignant (p.falciparum) or benign (p.vivax), as well as resistance of the falciparum parasite to chloroquine or sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine are also stated. The information given is taken from the WHO International Travel and Health 2005 edition. For those advising travellers, this booklet is available from WHO, Distribution and Sales, CH 1211, Geneva 27. This booklet also covers health hazards other than malaria to which travellers may be exposed and indicates the areas in which these are most likely to occur and recommends certain precautions which the wise traveller should take when visiting unfamiliar places.


In order to avoid difficulties with customs or security authorities, those using medicines (especially if drugs contain or have been derived from opium) are advised to hold a medical attestation (preferably in English)

Merchant Seamen

Merchant Seamen may be holders of a document adopted by the ILO member states (ILO = International Labour Organization:

  • The Seafarer's National Identity Document issued pursuant to ILO Convention 108 (see separate ILO section)
  • Seaman Book issued pursuant to ILO Convention 22 (see separate ILO section)

In this manual, these documents are referred to as: "Seaman Book" (Dutch: "zeemansboek"; French: "livret professionnel de marin"; German: "seefahrtbuch"; Italian: "libretto di navigazione" or validated "foglio provvisorio di navigazione"; Norwegian: sertifikat for (followed by rank of officer); Spanish: cartilla de navegacion ). The U.S. Merchant Mariner's Document" issued by the "United States Coast Guard" is usually called "Z Card".

The Seafarer's National Identity Document/Seaman Book, stating identity of holder, is accepted in lieu of a passport if this is stated under the "Passport" section of the country(ies) concerned.

Seamen must travel on duty and a hold Letter of Guarantee from their shipping company. The Letter of Guarantee should state the following: full name of seaman, date/place/country of birth, and in case of joining ship: name of ship, sailing date of ship, statement that seaman is a crew member of that ship; or - in case of disembarking ship, statement that seaman is proceeding to airport for e.g. repatriation and holds tickets with reserved seats and all documents required for country of destination.

Note: If no information exists on merchant seamen, the normal (transit) visa regulations apply.


Some countries accept military identity documents as passport-replacing documents, whether issued to military and civilian personnel, other staff or family members. Additionally, specific requirements may be applicable depending on the service, such as, holder must:

  • be travelling on duty;
  • wear uniform;
  • hold additional leave/travel/move orders, etc.


Minors are not allowed to travel on a passport in which they are registered if they are not accompanied by the holder(s) of that passport.

Minors must also comply with the regulations for entrance in, transit through and departure from a country.

When their names are registered in, and they travel on the passport of (one of) their parents or guardians, the (transit) visas or other endorsements in that passport must indicate that they are also valid for the child(ren) travelling on that passport.

Children not being of same nationality as their parents should carry their own passport and corresponding visas.


A person's nationality can be established by checking the specific information under nationality or national status in his travel document (e.g. passport or national identity card). In general, permission to enter a country without a visa is based on nationality and not on the country which issued his or her travel document.

Other travel documents

There are other travel documents, which may not always have the same legal effect as passports and are valid only for limited countries and purposes. Therefore, it is always necessary to check carefully whether the country of the passenger’s destination and transit recognizes such documents, even if such documents bear an endorsement for such countries.

Such travel documents may be identification cards, travel certificates, military I/D cards, seaman discharge books and records, affidavits, etc.

Birth Certificates: in the case where birth certificate is stated as an accepted document for the destination country, then the government issued (state/county) birth certificate is meant (not e.g. hospital issued). The term Birth Certificate covers government issued birth certificates, and may also include such documents as:

  • Birth Registration (Certificate; Certificate of Notice);
  • Notification of Birth (Certificate; Registration; Certification);
  • Certificate of Live Birth; etc.

For some countries, birth certificate must be endorsed by a seal (wet, raised, embossed etc) in order to be accepted.

Passport types

Besides normal passports, there are also:

  1. Alien passports: issued to alien residents of the issuing country.
  2. Children's identity cards: issued to minors instead of a passport.
  3. Diplomatic or consular passports; issued to diplomatic, consular and other government officials on missions entitling the bearer to diplomatic or consular status under international law and custom.
  4. Official, special or service passports: issued to government officials or other persons on government missions. Type of passport has to be inserted by issuing authorities.
  5. International Red Cross passport, Laissez-Passer issued by the United Nations etc.
  6. Joint passports (family passports). Persons travelling together may hold joint passports which may be used to cover either:
    • husband and wife with/without children; or
    • holder of the passport and child/children under a certain age (not necessarily related); or
    • two or more children
    For travel alone such passports may only be used by the person named first in the passport. Examples: a wife may not use the passport for travel without her husband, or a child without its parents, or a younger child without the elder. Note that some countries deviate from the above regulations.
  7. Temporary/emergency passports issued in emergency cases by a country's government to its own nationals. These passports have the same legal effect as normal passports, unless otherwise stated in the relevant country pages.

Passport validity

If there is no specific mention of validity, passports are simply required to be valid on entry. However, most countries do have a specific requirement and where this is published, is the actual practice of the immigration officials at airports. Please note that when consulting embassies on passport validity, more often than not the advice given will usually be validity of 6 months. This is quoted, as this is the minimum requirement for a visa issuing authority when issuing a visa in a passport.

Expired passports are accepted by some countries for certain nationals. If so, this information will also be published.


A passport is an official document issued by a competent public authority to nationals or to alien residents (mostly stateless persons) of the issuing country.
Passengers must hold a passport valid for all the countries to or via which they travel, unless:

  1. an exemption to that effect is stated in the passport section of the country(ies) concerned;
  2. they pass through a country without leaving the airport. A few countries do not allow this, in which case it is stated under the passport section of the country(ies) concerned.


For the purpose of this service, Pets are considered to be either cats, dogs or pet birds.

The regulations published in this service (always under the customs section) only apply to pets if they are:

  • accompanied by a passenger as personal baggage either in the cabin (if allowed) or in the hold of the aircraft
  • not destined for commercial purposes.

Pets arriving as freight on an air waybill may have to comply with other conditions. In such cases refer to the competent cargo office.

Dogs and cats in transit and not leaving the airport are not subject to governmental restrictions unless this has been specifically indicated in the information in the country concerned.

Regulation (EC) No. 998/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council General guidelines for pets travelling between the European Union member states and from third countries (see the respective country pages for any other additional information):

Dogs and cats arriving from E.U. countries, Andorra, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Norway, San Marino, Switzerland and Vatican City must:

  • bear a clearly readable tattoo or microchip, which complies with ISO Standard 11784 or Annex A to ISO Standard 11785. If the microchip does not meet these standards, the owner should provide a microchip reader able to detect the microchip; and
  • be accompanied by a pet passport, issued by a veterinarian authorised by the competent authority, which clearly identifies the pet and certifies valid anti-rabies vaccination, or revaccination if applicable, with an inactivated vaccine of at least one antigenic unit per dose (WHO standard) as well as an echinococcus and ticks treatment.

Import of unvaccinated pets under 3 months old may be allowed if holding passport and having stayed in the place of birth without contact with wild animals or be accompanied by their mothers on whom they are still dependent.

Dogs and cats imported from other countries have to comply with above requirements. In lieu of the passport, the animal must be accompanied by a certificate issued by official veterinarian or other veterinary surgeon, authorised by competent authority of country of dispatch (third country) carrying the information on the animal's identification and

  • anti-rabies vaccination; and
  • anti-body test showing a result of antibodies of at least 0.5 IU/ml carried out in an approved laboratory and taken at least 30 days after vaccination and 3 months before being moved; and
  • echinococcus and ticks treatment.

If a pet animal originally comes from an E.U. country and is accompanied by a pet passport carrying the information required for import, the pet passport replaces the veterinary certificate.

Import of unvaccinated pets under 3 months old may be allowed if the rabies situation in the country concerned so warrants.

The complete text of this resolution is available at the E.U. website:

Further specific information regarding importation and/or quarantine of cats, dogs or birds or large quantities of merchandise should be obtained from carrier's cargo offices or the nearest consulate of the country concerned.

Prophylactic Health Measures

  1. General: Travellers should always realize that when they are abroad they may come in contact with diseases which are more common than in the country in which they reside. The risk varies greatly from country to country, according to the manner in which the traveller lives and the duration of stay. Generally speaking many forms of illness may be prevented by:
    • avoiding infection e.g. by ensuring that food and drink are as safe as possible or by using a mosquito net
    • immunization and drug prophylaxis. Travellers should consult their physicians or local health service on the advisability of vaccination or other preventive measures to be taken for the individual for a particular plan of travel
  2. Yellow fever is the only vaccination specifically required in normal travel and is only necessary for certain countries
  3. Plague: vaccination is not required by any country and is only recommended for travellers under exceptional circumstances e.g. people who will have frequent and regular contact with wild rodents in areas where the disease is known to exist.
  4. Hepatitis: viral Hepatitis A is common in most warm countries and may be spread by food or drink. This is therefore another good reason for exercising great care in ensuring that food and drink are as safe as possible. Visitors to tropical areas and developing countries, especially if going beyond normal tourist routes, should consider having a safe and highly effective inactivated (killed) vaccine. Two doses of vaccine should be given. The first one 4 weeks before departure, if possible. The second dose 6-12 months later. Such a schedule is expected to provide at least 10 years' protection. Hepatitis B is highly endemic in all of Africa, a larger part of South America, eastern Europe, the eastern Mediterranean area, Southeast Asia, China and the Pacific islands except Australia, New Zealand and Japan. Hepatitis B may be transmitted in a number of ways such as blood transfusion, needle sharing, and sexual transmission. Hepatitis B vaccines produced from plasma or by recombinant DNA technology are available, safe and effective. The first two doses are usually given one month apart, with the third dose 1-12 months later. Immunization will provide protection for at least 10 years.
  5. Other diseases: there are other diseases such as rabies, diphtheria, tetanus, schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, typhoid and typhus fever etc. which constitute a risk only in certain areas or under unusual conditions e.g. outbreaks of typhoid fever following natural disasters. Travellers should discuss with their physician local preventive measures against such diseases.

Sanitary charges
Vaccinations performed and certificates issued at an airport of arrival may not be subject to a charge. Under the provisions of the International Health Regulations other certificates issued on departure may be subject to a charge.

Transit passengers
If a country requires that passengers coming via a certain area or country be vaccinated, this means that also those passengers who do not leave the airport and/or continue their journey by same aircraft in that area or country must be vaccinated. However, many exceptions are listed on the country sections.

Re-entry permit / exit permit

Re-entry permits entitle the holder to return to the country of domicile. These permits are generally required for returning residents.

Exit permits entitle the holder to leave a country

Refugees/stateless persons

Persons who are refugee or stateless for whatever reason may hold non-national travel documents. These are described variously as travel documents, Certificates of Identity, Laissez-Passer or even passports and may fall under the following categories:

  • Convention documents, issued by signatories of the 1946 London and 1951 Geneva Conventions relating to the status of refugees and the 1954 New York Convention on the status of stateless persons
  • Documents issued by other countries.

However, these documents may not always have the same legal effect as passports, and are valid only for limited countries and purposes. Therefore it is always necessary to check carefully whether such documents are recognized by the country of the passenger's destination and transit, even if such documents bear an endorsement for such countries.


The Schengen Member States are: Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. 

The Schengen Agreement is an agreement to remove immigration controls for travel within the collective territory of the Schengen Member States, effectively creating a “borderless” region known as the Schengen Area.

Types of visas:

Schengen Member States issue “A”, “C” and “D” visas:

''A'' airport transit visa (ATV): required for passengers who cannot use the TWOV facility, being in direct transit through a Schengen Member State when arriving from and departing to NON-Schengen countries, who are not permitted to use the transiit without visa (TWOV) facility. Leaving the transit area is not allowed.

"C" Schengen visa:
issued for transit through or a short stay in the Schengen Area (maximum 90 days in a 180 day period, from the first day of entry into the Schengen area).
The visa must be valid for the Member States being visited. A visa valid for all Member States will be endorsed "Etats Schengen", or equivalent in the language of the issuing Member State. In some cases, visas mkay have limited territorial validity (LTV) and will be marked accordingly, e.g., "France", will be valid for France only; "F-I", will be valid for France and Italy only; "Etats Schengen (-F, I)", will be valid for all Schengen Member States except France and Italy.
"C" visa will be valid for a specified period and will indicate if it allows single, double or multiple entries. Multiple-entry visas are valid for a period between 6 months and 5 years and will also indicate the maximum permitted duration of each stay.

"C" visas must be applied for at the correct embassy/consulate. If:
i) only one Schengen Member State is being visited: applications must be made at the Consulate or Embassy of that particular Member State;
ii) several Schengen Member States are being visited: applications must be made at the Consulate or Embassy of the Member State which is the main destination;
iii) several Schengen Member States are being visited but there is no main destination:
- for single-entry visas, applications must be made at the Consulate or Embassy of the Member State which is the first point of entry into the Schengen Area; or
- for multiple-entry visas, applications must be made at the Member State expected to be visited on the very first entry into the Schengen Area.

Schengen Approved Destination Scheme (ADS) Tourist Group Visas are "C" visas with "ADS" or "SDA" in the "Remarks" section of the visa. The group must travel as a complete group at all times.

When Member States do not have representation in a country, Schengen visas will be issued by representation of the Member State that issues visas on their behalf. In such cases, the "Remarks" section of the visa will be marked with "R" followed by the code for the Member State on whose behalf the visa was issued. For example, if an Austrian embassy has issued a visa on behalf of Germany, the Remarks section will contain "R DEU".

The first point of entry into the Schengen area depends on the number of Member States being visited, the amount of entries (single, double or multiple) and whether a main destination has been indicated, or not. False itineraries provided at the time of application could lead to denied entry and cancellation of the visa.

''D'' long stay national visa: this is not a Schengen visa but a visa issued for a longer period by an individual Schengen Member State and is indicated as being only valid for the country of issue. Within the validity period of the visa, ''D'' visas allow unrestricted, multiple entries into the issuing Member State, as well as entry into other Member States, for a maximum stay of 90 days in a 180 day period.

Care should be taken with re-routing passengers from their original itinerary to ensure that they have the correct visa.


Schengen TWOV

The Schengen Area is a group of 26 countries that agreed to remove border controls between its members. Flights between Schengen Member States are considered domestic, passengers are allowed to travel without clearing immigration.

Transit Without Visa (TWOV) in a Schengen Member State is possible when:
- arriving from a non-Schengen country and departing to a non-Schengen country (e.g. JFK-AMS-SIN)

Transit Without Visa (TWOV) in a Schengen Member State is NOT possible when:
- arriving from a non-Schengen country and departing to a Schengen country (e.g. JFK-AMS-FRA)

Passengers in the Schengen Area have already complied with entry requirements and are allowed to transit when:
- arriving from a Schengen country and departing to a Schengen country (e.g. FRA-AMS-CDG)
- arriving from a Schengen country and departing to a non-Schengen country (e.g. FRA-AMS-SIN)

In case of "double transit" (e.g. JFK-AMS-FRA-SIN) passengers enter the Schengen Area at the first transit point (AMS) and must comply with entry regulations of the first point (AMS).

Transit Without Visa (TWOV)

Traveling through an airport without a transit visa to board a connecting flight. Except for countries where some of the following conditions are not listed, passengers in TWOV must:
- stay in the international transit area; and
- travel to a third country within the maximum allowed transit time; and
- have a confirmed onward ticket and documents required for their next country of transit or destination.

Unless otherwise specified, passengers in transit are not required to comply with entry regulations of the transited country.
In countries where there are no transit facilities passengers must comply with all entry regulations.


A visa is an entry in a passport or other travel document made by a (consular) official of a government to indicate that the bearer has been granted authority to enter or re-enter the country concerned.

Visa check

A visa, transit visa or a visa exemption for a country does not guarantee admission to that country. The final decision rests with the competent authorities at the port of entry in the country concerned. It is necessary to check carefully the (transit) visas required by the authorities of:

  1. country of destination
  2. country of departure (if returning to this country)
  3. country of residence
  4. transit stations (transit visas)
    • if only a landing will be made en route the transit visas should be checked as well;
    • passengers travelling in transit through a country must be able to prove that they will continue their journey within the prescribed period. Unless otherwise stated they can do this by showing: -
    • a ticket for the remaining stretches of the journey
    • a ticket for the homeward journey
    • a sum of money in the required currency, sufficient to buy a ticket for the remaining stretches of the journey or for the homeward journey. In addition, these passengers must be in possession of the documents required for entry into the country of destination and transit through the countries en route.
      Note: Some countries have strict transit regulations. Certain categories of passengers, even those proceeding by same flight and not leaving the aircraft, are:
      • refused transit or required to hold a (transit) visa; or
      • required to hold a yellow fever vaccination certificate.
      These facts are published in the information of the countries concerned.

Visa validity

The periods during which (transit) visas permit a passenger to stay in a country and the time within which the (transit) visa has to be used and how many times the passenger may enter the country on it, can be found in the (transit) visa section.

Weights and Measures conversions

  • 1 lb = 454 grams (0.454 kilograms)
  • 1 ounce = 28 grams
  • 1 pint = 0.570 litre
  • 1 imperial quart = 40 oz = 1.14 litre
  • 1 imperial gallon (4 imp.quarts) = 4.56 litre
  • 1 reputed quart - 25 oz = 0.75 litre
  • 1 US quart = 32 oz = 0.94 litre
  • 1 US gallon (4 US quarts) = 3.76 litre

Yellow Fever

Yellow Fever is the only vaccination specifically required. Vaccination is required when traveling to a country that requires an ICVP stating that the holder has been vaccinated against yellow fever because the country is at risk from yellow fever transmission or because the traveler has traveled through a country at risk of yellow fever transmission. Risk of yellow fever transmission is defined as yellow fever being currently reported or having been reported in the past and presence of animals or microorganisms representing a potential risk of infection and transmission.

International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis
(ICVP) is used to record vaccinations or other preventative measures that have been administered and has replaced the "International Certificate of Vaccination or Revaccinations against Yellow Fever".

  1. If vaccinations are required, passengers should contact their doctor or other recognized travel health care specialists.
  2. The ICVP booklet, must be duly filled in, signed and stamped by the vaccinator.
  3. The ICVP in addition to being issued by country health administrations, are also valid when originating from the health services of specialized agencies of the United Nations, for example FAO, UNESCO, WHO, etc. These certificates should be signed by the vaccinator and carry the official stamp of the Agency concerned.
  4. To be considered as a valid document, the ICVP must be printed in English and French, although a third language may be added. The certificate must be fully and correctly completed in English or French. Completion in another language in addition is not excluded. Only accept loose vaccination certificates if they are in conformity with those in the booklet.

An ICVP is an individual certificate and should not be used collectively. Passengers who are exempt from yellow fever vaccination on medical grounds, must hold a certificate of contraindication on medical grounds, clearly stating the contraindications to vaccination and bearing the stamp used by the yellow fever vaccination center to validate the ICVP.

Period of validity:
An ICVP becomes valid 10 days after vaccination. Starting from 11 July 2016, the period of validity of vaccination against yellow fever changed from 10 years to the entire duration of the life of the person vaccinated. This change was approved by all WHO member States and is captured in the current International Health Regulations. Therefore, all ICVP documenting the administration of one dose of vaccine against yellow fever, at any point in time, must be considered valid. Accordingly, revaccination is not required and certificates of vaccination cannot be rejected on the ground that more than ten years have passed since the vaccination became effective. Some countries have not yet aligned their policy and practice with the International Health Regulations. This information as well as all other ICVP requirements and recommendations are specified under the health section of each country, when applicable.

Roles and Responsibilities of Health Authorities

  • Surveillance: none.
  • Quarantine (periods calculated from day of departure): 6 days (or until certificate becomes valid whichever occurs first) if arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission. Quarantine expenses are to be charged to the passenger and shall not be borne by the air carrier concerned.

Infected areas:
See General Health Section

Yellow fever endemic areas:
"Yellow fever endemic areas" are areas in which aedes aegypti (mosquito) or any other domiciliary vector of yellow fever is present but is not obviously responsible for the maintenance of the virus which persists among jungle animals over long periods of time.

Countries/territories at risk for yellow fever transmission
Countries/territories at risk for yellow fever transmission, according to the World Health Organization:

  • Angola
  • Benin
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Rep.
  • Chad
  • Congo
  • Congo (Dem. Rep.)
  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Ethiopia
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Ghana
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Guinea
  • Kenya
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Rwanda
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • South Sudan
  • Sudan
  • Togo
  • Uganda

Central and South America:

  • Argentina
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • French Guiana
  • Guyana
  • Panama
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Suriname
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Venezuela